Circumcision is the surgical removal of some or all of the skin covering the tip of the penis. The word "circumcision" comes from the Latin word circum (meaning "around") and cædere (meaning "to cut").
Children’s Urological Health
Learn more: children’s conditions
Neonatal circumcision, performed soon after birth, can be done by a pediatrician or an obstetrician in the hospital within hours of delivery. However, most patients are referred to a urologist after they are six months old; after this age the procedure must take place in a hospital operating room or at an outpatient surgery center.
Enuresis, or incontinence in children, is the complete loss of urinary control or involuntary urination two or more times per month after the age that toilet training is complete.
A hydrocele is a fluid-filled sac surrounding the testicle and an inguinal hernia is a protruding outgrowth of intestine through the abdominal wall. Hydroceles and inguinal (groin) hernias are common in male infants, due to the way the male sexual organs are formed in the womb.
Hypospadias is usually diagnosed in males at birth. Upon examination, the foreskin is usually incomplete and the urethral opening is misplaced. Mild hypospadias may not be diagnosed unless removal of the foreskin (circumcision) is performed.
Pyeloplasty is the surgical reconstruction or revision of the renal pelvis to drain and decompress the kidney.
The testicles of a male fetus generally descend into the scrotum before birth, but if this does not occur, the boy will have an undescended testicle.
UTIs are fairly common in children. About 8 percent of girls and 2 percent of boys will have a UTI by the time they are 5 years old.
Learn more: general urologic conditions
Normally, as your bladder stores urine, your pelvic floor muscles contract to support your bladder and hold urine in without leaking. Bladder control problems occur when your pelvic muscles weaken. There are different types of bladder control problems.
A bladder infection, also called cystitis, is the most common of all kinds of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Some people, mainly women, develop bladder and other urinary tract infections because they are prone to such infections the way other people are prone to getting coughs or colds.
A kidney stone is a hard mass developed from crystals that separate from the urine within the urinary tract. Normally, urine contains chemicals that prevent or inhibit the crystals from forming. These inhibitors do not seem to work for everyone, however, so some people form stones.
Bladder control problems, or overactive bladder, prevent you from controlling when and how much you urinate. Patients can experience a variety of symptoms.
During a urinary tract infection, the lining of the bladder and urethra becomes irritated just as the inside of the nose or throat does during a cold.